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In later embryonic stage, RBCs are mainly produced by the liver and spleen. Thus bone may be studied in two forms: decalcified and dried. It is yellow in colour and has much fatty tissue. The white fibrous con­nective tissue forms cords called tendons which connect the skeletal muscles with the bones. Liquid connective tissue (examples of tissue is blood, W.B.C’s, lymph) The connective tissue has different types of cells supporting specialized tissue. Examples: humerus, femur. Normal or low TLC is in viral infection, malaria, typhoid or tuberculosis. They have some similarity to lysosomes. The extracellular matrix is made up of fibres in a protein and polysaccharide matrix, secreted and organised by cells in the extracellular matrix. Blood is a mobile connective tissue composed of a fluid, the plasma and the cells, the blood corpuscles. The main fibers that form this tissue are elastic in nature. Its useful to think of two major categories. They are, therefore, also called acidophils. Eosinophil’s can attach themselves to parasitic forms and cause their destruction by liberating lysosomal enzymes on their surface. Young cartilage cells are relatively small, often flattened with many small surface projections (filopodia) and are called chondroblasts (this term is also used for embryonic cartilage producing cells). There are more than 200 disorders that affect the connective tissue. A small bone also develops in the crest of a bird and snout of a hog. Examples: os cordis in the heart of some ruminants (e.g., deer), os penis in the penis of most bats, insectivores, rodents (e.g., rats), carnivores (e.g., dog, walrus), whales, some primates (not man), os clitoris in the clitoris of many carnivores, and os palpebrae in the eyelids of crocodiles. It is not rigid like bone. Connective tissue disease refers to a group of disorders involving the protein-rich tissue that supports organs and other parts of the body. It produces blood corpuscles in emergency, i.e., at the time of excessive loss of blood; when it changes into red bone marrow. Lymphatic capillaries present in the intestinal villi are called lacteals which are associated with absorp­tion and transportation of fat and fat soluble vitamins. In adults most of the blood corpuscles are formed in the red bone marrow of long bones. Connective tissue is the most abundant and widely distributed of the primary tissues. The most common affected areas are joints, muscles, and skin. cushions joints and organs,insulates, stores energy. Thus iron, protein, vitamin B12 and folic acid are essential for the formation of haemoglobin and RBCs. Dense irregular elastic tissues give arterial walls the strength and the ability to regain original shape after stretching (Figure 4.9). This is known as a connective tissue disorder. TOS4. Apidose tissue. It brings plasma protein macromolecules synthesized in the liver cells and hormones produced in the endocrine glands to the blood. These cells include fibroblasts, fat cells, mast cells, and also white blood cells like the macrophages, plasma cells, etc. They are non-motile and non-phagocytic. They are the largest of all types of leucocytes and somewhat amoeboid in shape. The types of cells found in connective tissue vary depending on the type of tissue they support. 7. For example, red and white blood cells are found in blood, which is a fluid connective tissue. Immunoglobulin’s which act as antibodies and some other substances, such as lysozyme (a polysaccharide) and properdin (a large protein) are always found in the plasma. An osteocyte is surrounded by a fluid-filled space, the bone lacuna, which leads into fine radiating channels, the canaliculi (minute canals). Read more: Connective Tissue (CT) Disease Article The fibres are few in number and form a loose network for supporting the fat-laden cells. It consists of a network of thin and irregularly longi­tudinal and tranverse bony bars called trabeculae covered by the endosteum. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. This tissue is most widely distributed connective tissue in the animal body. A gelatin-like substance obtained from cartilage by boiling is called chondrin. But in mammals they are not nucleated, biconcave and circular. They are simply bits of protoplasm, bounded by a membrane and contain a few cell organelles and secretory granules in the cytoplasm. It is present in the umbilical cord. The carbohydrates are chemically glycosaminoglycan’s (GAG). These molecules form a firm gel that gives firm consistency to the ground substance of the cartilage. Describe the diverse types of connective tissue. Connective tissue has three main components: cells, fibers, and ground substance. 7.29) which contain yellowish brown, black or blue melanin pigment granules. Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? There are two types of adipose tissue: white (or yellow) fat and brown fat. The Haversian canals are interconnected by transverse channels, the Volkmann’s canals. Others, such as bone, are richly supplied with blood vessels. The increase in number of acidophils during allergy is called eosinophilia. Loose connective tissue has much more ground substance and a relative lack of fibrous tissue, while the reverse is true of dense connectiv… A connective tissue disease is any disease that affects the parts of the body that connect the structures of the body together. In fishes, amphibians, reptiles and birds RBCs are usually nucleated, oval and biconvex. (c) Outer circumferential lamellae (= outer concentric lamellae): These lamellae occur inner to periosteum. It consists of mainly white (collagen) fibres which are arranged in bundles. Cartilage is composed of specialized cells called chondroblasts and, unlike other connective tissues, cartilage does not contain blood vessels. In fact it forms packing nearly in all organs. The cartilage tissue has widely spaced cells. Mainly globulin proteins are present which are actually antibodies. The functions of areolar connective tissue include the support and binding of other tissues. Vascular tissues are motile connective tissues consisting of fluid matrix and free cells. These include glucose, fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, fats, amino acids, nucleosides, etc. The matrix ca… It also helps in defending against infection. They have a group of basophilic granules in the centre which give the appearance of a nucleus. They contain granules in their cytoplasm. It also forms the internal frame work (= stroma) of many solid organs. The best dense regular connective tissue examples are the tendons and ligaments. Manual of Surgery | Alexis Thomson and Alexander Miles The blood vessels … of 72. bone connective tissue connective tissue human body bone histology human bone microscopic cells tissue regeneration connective tissue cells medicine structure tissue microscope vitamin infographics fiber skin. The nucleus is two lobed. Connective tissues can have various levels of vascularity. These cells are often called signet ring cells because they resemble a signet rang when seen in cross sec­tion. In the early few weeks of embryonic life, primitive nucleated RBCs are produced in the yolk sac. Bone acts as a reservoir for ion like calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. In fact bone marrow is a special kind of tissue which is called myelogenous or myeloid tissue. In frog, spleen, liver and lymph nodes are main sites of haemopoiesis. These fibers allow the tissues to recoil after stretching. Keratin sulphate increases with maturity. Figure 4.9. It is important to note that the oxygen shortage stimulates the kidney cells to secrete a hormone named erythropoietin, into the blood. In the tissues oxyhaemoglobin readily gives up its oxygen. See connective tissue stock video clips. The inorganic salts present in the matrix are calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, magnesium phos­phate, etc. It contains yellow bone marrow and has Haversian systems. Hard parts of the body consti­tute skeleton. To bind parts together is the primary function of areolar tissue. The pigmented connective tissue gives colour to the structures. If a bone is dried, its organic matter (living matter) is destroyed and inorganic part is left behind. The bone marrow cavity is filled with a soft and semisolid fatty neurovascular tissue termed as bone marrow. The ground substance functions as a molecular sieve for substances to travel between blood capillaries and cells. Reticular connective tissue is present in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, thy­mus, tonsils, bone marrow and lamina propria of the gut wall. It is red due to abundant blood vessels. It is composed of proteoglycans and cell adhesion proteins that allow the connective tissue to act as glue for the cells to attach to the matrix. Each adipose cell contains fat globules, due to which the nucleus and the cytoplasm are displaced to the periphery. This enables them to squeeze out of blood capillaries into the tissues (extra vascular regions). Due to presence of abundant white fibres, the skin dermis of large mammals yields leather after chemical treatment called tanning. Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Body Organisation. Calcium carbonate makes the cartilage hard and inelastic. Some delicate collagen fibres and primitive type of fibroblasts arc also present. It is found in the shaft of long bones. Blood. In addition to above mentioned connective tissues, mucoid tissue occurs as a foetal or embryonic connective tissue. Its matrix appears transparent or glassy when viewed under a microscope. It also helps some of your tissues do their work. The adipose cells of brown fat are multilocular, each cell with several small fat globules. It is present in the shafts of long bones. It forms articular surfaces at the joints of long bones, where it is called articular cartilage. After about the fifth year the red bone marrow is gradually replaced in the long bones by yellow bone marrow. General Biology/Tissues and Systems/Connective Tissue. These support the body, protect the various organs and help in locomotion. Human RBCs are smaller than the white blood corpuscles. Loose areolar connective tissue. Sprain is caused by excessive pulling (stretching) of ligaments. On the basis of the above description, the general functions of blood are: (10) Prevention of Excessive Loss of Blood. 7.21): The matrix contains numerous yellow fibres which form a network by uniting with one another. Water alone forms about 90% to 92% of the plasma. This is loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. Bone tissue is also called the osseous tissue. Dense irregular: Much of the dermis layer of the skin is composed of dense irregular connective tissue. The individual bones of the skeleton are held firmly together by ligaments, and muscles are attached to bone by tendons, both of which are examples of dense connective tissue in which many fibre bundles are associated in parallel array to provide great tensile strength. In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. With the tensile strength of collagen, this tissue forms tendons, aponeurosis and ligaments. The total count of WBC is useful in diagnosing various diseases. Connective tissue is composed primarily of two elements: cells and a matrix. The cells are irregular in shape and are called pigment cells (= chromatophores or melanophores; Fig. Deficiency of any of these nutrients can cause anaemia. These bones are formed in the tendons at the joints. It is a major part of the embryonic skeleton, the costal cartilages of the ribs, and the cartilage of the nose, trachea, and larynx. Adipose tissue or body fat is loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. Brown fat found in those mammals which have an oxidation power 20 times more than that of yellow fat because brown fat cells are loaded with a large number of mitochondria. The most conspicuous component of the mucoid tissue is a jelly like substance, called whartson’s jelly. It occurs in the intervertebral discs where it acts as cushion and in the pubic symphysis (region between the two pubic bones of the pelvic girdle) where it helps in parturition (process of birth). Bundles of periosteal collagen fibres, called Sharpey’s fibres, penetrate the bone matrix to provide a firm connection between the two. The matrix often has very fine white fibres which are difficult to observe. These include ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatine, creati­nine, etc. The monocytes also have a short life span of 10 to 20 hours. Yellow Elastic Connective tissue has considerable strength and remarkable elasticity. Privacy Policy3. Lymphocytes are produced mainly in lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, bone marrow and Peyer’s patches of small intestine. Major functions of connective tissue include: 1) binding and supporting, 2) protecting, 3) insulating, 4) storing reserve fuel, and 5) transporting substances within the body. The matrix has numerous inactive bone cells, the osteocytes. Cartilage is also an important connective tissue as it helps in smoothening the bone surfaces at the joints. This tissue gives bones their smooth, white, and solid appearance, and accounts for 80% of the total bone mass of an adult skeleton. They eat harmful germs and are, therefore, phagocytic in nature. Dense regular: Tendons and ligaments are examples of dense regular connective tissue. (b) Leucocytes (White Blood Corpuscles or WBCs): The number of leucocytes per micro-litre of blood is called the total leucocyte count (TLC). These are formed in the soft organs (= viscera). It is a thick and tough sheath that forms an envelope around the bone. Although it is the most abundant and widely distributed of the primary tissues, the amount of connective tissue in a particular organ varies. Mixed connective tissue disease Osteosclerosis with ichthyosis and premature ovarian failure Pacman dysplasia Paget disease of bone - Not a rare disease Paget disease of bone, familial Polymyositis Progressive deafness with stapes fixation Rheumatoid factor-negative juvenile idiopathic arthritis Carbon dioxide also combines with the amino group (—NH2) of the haemoglobin of red blood corpuscles to form carb-amino-haemoglobin. 7.19): It contains clear, large amount of translucent, slightly elastic matrix with less fibres. Because it is compressible and resists tension well, fibrocartilage is found where strong support and the ability to withstand heavy pressure are required. They include chondroitin sulphate, keratin sulphate and hyalu­ronic acid. When you think about epithelial tissue you can think about it as a lining. It is due to the fact that women undergo menstruation. This process is called diapedesis. The lymphocytes have life spans of few days or months or even years, but this depends on the body’s need for these cells. Its function is to maintain the shape of the structure while allowing flexibility. It contains proteins and sugars. It is named so because it takes the form of fine threads crossing each other in every direction leaving small spaces called areolae. Barr is the name of the scientist. Connective tissues are made up of two proteins: collagen and elastin. They are 7-8 pm in diameter. Connective tissue proper consists of loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue (which is further subdivided into dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues.) Their nucleus is irregular or lobed or subdivided. reticular. Structural elements of connective tissue: Connective tissues consist of three parts: cells suspended in a ground substance or matrix; and most have fibers running through it. connective tissue meaning: 1. the strong material that supports and connects the organs in the body and is also found in the…. Blood plasma contains a conjugated polysaccharide, the heparin which prevents coagulation of blood inside blood vessels. In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), in bone marrow (yellow bone marrow), and in breast tissue. Fall in WBC count is called leukopenia. Collagen is found in the tendons, ligaments, skin, cartilage, bone and blood vessels. The sheets formed by this tissue occur in the walls of blood vessels, lungs, bronchioles, true vocal cords, cartilage of larynx, trachea, capsules of spleen and ligamenta flava which connect adjacent vertebrate. Helene M. Langevin | Apr 30, 2013. During foetal life and at birth there is red bone marrow throughout the skeleton. By 20 to 25 years the red bone marrow persists only in the vertebrae, sternum, ribs, clavicles, scapulae, pelvis, cranial bones and in the proximal ends of femora (pi. Which part of the male reproductive system store the sperm? This is a blend of hyaline cartilage and dense regular connective tissue. Cytoplasm contains abundant coarse granules which pick acidic stain like eosine. The increase in number of RBCs may be during muscular exercise to meet the increased demand of oxygen and at high altitudes to cope with the low oxygen content of the air. Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue found in many areas in the bodies of humans and other animals, including the joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the elbow, the knee, the ankle, the bronchial tubes, and the intervertebral discs. They produce antibodies to destroy mi­crobes and their toxins reject grafts and kill tumour cells. 7.16). It is like a "cellular glue" that gives your body parts their shape and helps keep them strong. Its main role is to store energy in the form of lipids, although it also cushions and insulates the body. It also provides rapid diffusion of materials and migration of wandering cells towards areas of infection and repair. Three types of fibers are found in connective tissue: Collagen: Collagen fibers are the strongest and most abundant of all the connective tissue fibers. They are probably like mast cells of connective tissue. Connective tissue (CT) is a one of the four main classes of tissues. Normal life span of blood platelets is about a week. The white fibres also occur but they are very fine. It has fibroblasts and many fibres (mostly collagen) that are oriented differently. Carbon dioxide combines with potassium carbonate of the red blood corpuscles to form potassium bicarbonate in the presence of an enzyme carbonic anhydrase. This tissue consists of star-shaped reticular cells whose protoplasmic processes join to form a cellular network. But the white fibrous tissue is present here inner to osteoblasts. Blood is a bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances, such as nutrients and oxygen, to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. Lymph nodes produce lymphocytes. The cyto­plasm contains mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, centrioles besides other cell organelles. If these cells are treated with alcohol, the fatty substance is dissolved and the cells become vacuolated. They also help in dissolving blood clot. Examples of structures composed of fibrous connective tissue are ligaments, tendons, and the capsules (coverings) around certain organs. Both an inner lining and an outer lining. It is found more abundantly in vertebrate embryos because most of the bones forming skeleton of the adult are cartilaginous in the early stage. Body cells are kept moist by the lymph. The reticular connective tissue is especially adapted to provide strength and support as it forms the supporting framework (stroma) of many organs. Anaemia may be caused by loss of blood (haemorrhage), destruction of RBCs (haemolysis or faulty formation of blood). These molecules cannot pass into the narrow blood capillaries but can diffuse into the lymphatic capillaries. They are smaller in size containing scant cytoplasm with large rounded nucleus. A normal adult man and woman have 5 and 4.5 million RBCs per cubic millimetre of blood respectively. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. The total number of RBCs per microlitre (lµ l = 1 mm3 = 10-6 l) of blood is termed as the total count of RBCs. There are about 250,000 platelets in a cubic millimetre of blood. Your connective tissue supports many different parts of your body, such as your skin, eyes, and heart. Other functions are to provide strength, elasticity, support to the parts where this tissue is present. These mainly include albumin, globulin, immunoglobulin, prothrombin and fibrinogen. All salts constitute about 0.9% of plasma. Blood forms about 30-35 percent of the ECF. The spleen is a large lymphatic organ in the body. It is an atypical connective tissue since it does not bind, connect, or network with any body cells. 4. Adipose tissue is also found in the blubber of whales and elephants, hump of camel, fat bodies of frog and yellow bone marrow. Lymph takes lymphocytes and antibodies from the lymph nodes to the blood. Different kinds of vitamins and enzymes are present in the blood plasma. (vii) Uniform distri­bution of heat all over the body. lacunae), which affects the shape of the cell. This is especially seen in the arterial blood vessels and walls of the bronchial tubes. It is comparatively hard and compact. They have coarse granules. Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC) means detecting the number of different kinds of leucocytes. Each Haversian canal contains an artery, a vein, a lymph vessel, a nerve and some bone cells, all packed in with connective tissue. Formation of erythrocytes is called erythropoiesis. Such a bone is called decalcified bone. A typical (generalized) cartilage consists of the following parts: A cartilage cell is present in a fluid filled space, the cartilage lacuna (pi. Yellow Elastic Connective tissue has considerable strength and remarkable elasticity. These are chlorides, bicarbonates, sulphates and phosphates of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron and magnesium. Formation of thrombocytes is called thrombopoiesis. Their granules take acidic stains (e.g., eosin). Both mast cells and basophils liberate histamine, heparin as well as smaller quantities of bradykinin and serotonin. 100 ml of blood contains about 15 mg of haemoglobin. 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