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Increased concentrations are expected to: These changes will impact our food supply, water resources, infrastructure, ecosystems, and even our own health. The maps show projected future changes in precipitation for the end of this century, compared with 1970-1999, under a higher emissions scenario. How does the global climate system work, and what is the evidence that human activity is affecting it? The vertical bars at right show likely ranges in temperature by the end of the century, while the lines show projections averaged across a range of climate models. Learn about the science behind climate change and experts’ projections for the future. The concentration of CO2 is rising. Northern Hemisphere snow cover is expected to decrease by approximately 15% by 2100. The more we emit, the larger future changes will be. [2], Ocean acidification adversely affects many marine species, including plankton, mollusks, shellfish, and corals. Although it is difficult to say exactly how much warming was caused by humans, many lines of evidence support the conclusion that human activities have caused most observed warming over at least the last several decades. Assuming that these historical geological forces continue, a 2-foot rise in global sea level by 2100 would result in the following relative sea level rise:[4], Relative sea level rise also depends on local changes in currents, winds, salinity, and water temperatures, as well as proximity to thinning ice sheets. Except under the most aggressive mitigation scenario studied, global average temperature is expected to warm at least twice as much in the next 100 years as it has during the last 100 years. Every tiny thing matters. The Queensland Future Climate Dashboard provides easy access to climate projection, heatwave and rainfall information for Queensland. Source: USGCRP (2009). Earth's climate is changing. This version contains 44 pages, including 11 pages of references. Confidence in the projected changes is highest in the areas marked with diagonal lines. Despite the complexities, some projections and conclusions, particularly at the continental to global scales, can be made. Click the image to view a larger version. Latest information on climate change This publication from the Australian Academy of Science aims to address confusion created by contradictory information in the public domain. We define 'dangerous' climate change effects as those that are irreversible, spiraling (self-reinforcing), very large or very rapid, and with a serious impact on natural and human sy… The strongest cold-season storms are projected to become stronger and more frequent. Source: U.S. National Climate Assessment, 2014. The proportion of precipitation falling as rain rather than snow is expected to increase, except in far northern areas. As shown in the graph and map above, the pH level of the oceans is projected to decrease even more by the end of the century as CO2 concentrations are expected to increase for the foreseeable future. If atmospheric CO2 concentrations double, coral calcification rates are projected to decline by more than 30%. Climate models are used to understand the causes of climate change and to project changes into the future. Increase the frequency, intensity, and/or duration of extreme events, Natural influences on climate (e.g., from volcanic activity and changes in the sun's intensity) and natural processes within the climate system (e.g., changes in ocean circulation patterns). Southern areas, especially the Southwest, are projected to become drier. Additionally, the grid cells of the models are usually more than 60 miles (100 km) wide, which is larger than important features that matter for local climate like mountains and land cover. Generally, confidence decreases as one moves from larger scales to smaller scales. This will be particularly pronounced in tropical and high-latitude regions, which are also expected to experience overall increases in precipitation. Increase Earth's average temperature 2. Source: NCA, 2014. Oceans become more acidic as carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the atmosphere dissolve in the ocean. Part of the Chinese diaspora in the UK, Chan has recently explored how science fiction writers in China make sense of present realities and future challenges through climate change stories. Source: Oceans become more acidic as carbon dioxide (CO, Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations will have many effects, http://www.iiasa.ac.at/web-apps/tnt/RcpDb, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations, and Impacts over Decades to Millennia, Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Climate Change and the Past, Present, and Future of Biotic Interactions | Science Biotic interactions drive key ecological and evolutionary processes and … EO-1 collects much more detailed information about the earth’s surface than previous satellite missions. Influence the patterns and amounts of precipitation 3. This is because the variability of the climate increases at smaller geographic and shorter temporal scales. It can happen naturally or in response to human activities, including the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests. Calcium carbonate is a key building block for the shells and skeletons of many marine organisms. Their stories and movements-in the real world and through science fiction-help us all better understand the relationship between activism and culture, and how both can be valuable tools in creating our future. Regional climate modeling is an active area of research to improve our ability to project future changes at smaller spatial scales. 4. "Chapter 7: Sea Level Rise and the Coastal Environment." The number of days with high temperatures above 90°F is expected to increase throughout the United States, especially toward the end of the century. Human activities are contributing to climate change, primarily by releasing billions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO 2) and other heat-trapping gases, known as greenhouse gases, into the atmosphere every … As ocean acidification increases, the availability of calcium carbonate will decline. Learn what climate change is, and how it affects the planet Climate Change poses an increasing threat to the stability of Earth’s systems. Climate Change concludes with a look toward the future, discussing climate model projections, exploring the economic and technological realities of energy production, and presenting a view of the global warming challenge through the lens of risk.  Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Projected temperature change for mid-century (left) and end-of-century (right) in the United States under higher (top) and lower (bottom) emissions scenarios. 8. [2] Climate models project the following precipitation and storm changes. Click the image to view a larger version. Blue and green areas are projected to experience increases in precipitation by the end of the century, while yellow and brown areas are projected to experience decreases. Arctic sea ice is already declining. The strength of the winds associated with tropical storms is likely to increase. 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